Description anemia

Anemia is generally blood disease – particularly red blood cells (erythrocytes). This is a condition in which the reduced hemoglobin (Hb = red blood pigment which carries oxygen) below the specified ranges for the age and sex of the individual.This is related to the actual reduction in the number of red blood cells and blood cells as well as a separate volume.

Hemoglobin levels in males is determined in the range of 140-170 g / l and women in the range 110-160 g / l. Dropping below the lower limit is therefore an anemia. The level of each individual is determined by a simple blood test included in normal blood counts to the doctor.

Anemia can be divided into three main groups according to the size of red blood cells (RBCs). So we divide it on micro- (small blood cells), macrocytic (large) and normocytic (normal size).


General signs and symptoms of anemia

Anemia has in most cases gradual onset. The main symptoms, leading to the correct diagnosis, the symptoms are noticeable pallor and decreased performance.

It appears sleepiness (lethargy), fainting, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate (tachycardia), pale skin and mucous membranes.

Can be triggered angina pectoris (burning, gripping pain behind the breastbone), especially if the patient was suffering from atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries), heart (coronary) arteries.

In older people is reflected confusion.

For people suffering from heart disease and the elderly can lead to heart failure.

Anemia can be divided into eight groups according to the cause of its occurrence. Each group has its own specific symptoms, causes and treatment. The main division is the size of blood cells macrocytic (large cells), micro- (small blood cells) and normocytic (normal size cells).

ANAEMIA micro-

1) iron deficiency anemia

Iron our body needs just to the formation of hemoglobin. By limiting the content of iron in the body, reduce the number of hemoglobin and not to establish the needed oxygen.

Iron is mainly obtained from the diet – green vegetables, red meat, eggs and milk. Its absorption occurs in the small intestine. Its deficiency is more common in women before the “transition” (menopause, menopause) during menstrual bleeding.

The main causes of iron deficiency include inadequate dietary intake (often occurs in young children unbalanced diet), blood loss with menstruation, chronic blood loss, usually from the gastrointestinal tract (this may be the only symptom of colon cancer), as well as the increased need for iron during pregnancy or reduced absorption (absorption) in the small intestine or after removal of the stomach (gastrectomy).

Symptoms belong fragile and brittle hair and nails, red and smooth tongue (atrophic glossitis) Nail concave (coilonychia) and gathers on the rear wall of the neck, wherein the difficult to swallow (dysphagia).

In the treatment we try to eliminate the root causes. Therefore taking iron preparations. Most often in tablet form (oral) – eg .: ferrous sulphate (200 mg 3 times daily for up to 6 months).Digestive problems like constipation or diarrhea are usually rights after taking such .: gluconate, ferrous. If iron is poorly absorbed in the small intestine, it is necessary to administer drugs in injectable form.

2) Anaemia in chronic diseases

This type of anemia first does not show any decrease in hemoglobin or by changing the shape and size of red blood cells, but occurs in certain diseases as one of the symptoms.

These include rheumatoid arthritis (arthritis), kidney failure and liver diseases, chronic infections, malignant (malignant) tumors and inflammatory diseases (eg .: Crohn’s disease – a disease of gastrointestinal mucosa).

In this anemia will reduce the life of the red blood cells (usually about 120 days) and reduction oferythropoietin (hormone produced in the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells).Iron level is normal or increased.

Treatment of iron in this species and therefore ineffective treatment should focus on the real cause – the treatment of the disease, which has caused anemia. In some cases, it can help a patientdoses of erythropoietin.

Anaemia macrocytic

When macrocytic anemia are immature red blood cells and large, because of impaired DNAsynthesis. Most often the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency or folic acid, which are required for the synthesis.

1) deficiency anemia, vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 should be part of the diet of each of us. We receive it mainly from animal sources – meat, fish, eggs and milk. It is absorbed in the digestive tract due to internal factors, which discharge cells in the stomach. Then travels to the liver where it is stored in inventory for up to two years or more.

One cause of the shortage is low dietary intake – especially in vegans (people who eat food that is not out of any part of the creation of animals), further malabsorption, lack of intrinsic factor in gastric mucosa (intrisic factor), pernicious anemia ( see. below), following removal of the stomach, malabsorption in the intestine, pancreatic diseases, chronic pancreatitis.

2) Pernicious anemia

It is an autoimmune disorder, which leads to relaxation of gastric mucosa, and thus failure of intrinsic factor and increase of gastric acid, which reduces the absorption of vitamin B12. More often, the disease manifests itself in adults and in people with blond hair and blue eyes.

Symptoms of anemia have a slow onset, and therefore the correct diagnosis is often in an advanced stage. These include numbness, fatigue and weight loss, pallor.

Furthermore, there are neurological symptoms – it may appear tingling in the extremities, which can go up to paralysis and impaired brain function until dementia.

For examination serve blood counts, from which to determine the level of vitamin B12. Based on these results, then administered vitamin B12 injection into a muscle, because when administered orally is absorbed. First, it serves to supplement the proper level, and then kept for life. Treatment can delay neurological symptoms and stop processes amended.

3) Lack of folic acid

Folic acid is a B vitamin group and its effects are closely related to vitamin B12. Located in liver, yeast and green vegetables. During pregnancy the need for its higher levels, it is therefore necessary to supply the tablets to prevent neural tube defects of the fetus – eg .: spina bifida.

This may be reduced intake come with old age, alcoholics and premature infants. Another cause could be poor absorption, for example, in Crohn’s disease. Folic acid deficiency is manifested as anemia.

Therapy is also administered vitamin scarce, thus folic acid and tablets, with emphasis on treating the root causes.

Anaemia normocytic

1) Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia is a disease which occurs sporadically. It is caused by bone marrow suppression.In bone marrow, resulting in formation of blood components – red blood cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes). During the downturn, the level of all components is reduced. This disease is mainly obtained (apparent during life), but there are individuals who inherit it.

With the emergence of aplastic anemia can also connect other types of anemia. They may also cause cancer drugs like. In haemogram we find a small number of all types of blood particles (pancytopenia).

Treatment focuses on removing the cause. Following rather supportive care when administeringtransfusions (blood components) and antibiotics. For young and old people with severe disease can be transplanted bone marrow or use of immunosuppressive therapy.

hemolytic anemia

In hemolytic anemia leads to premature destruction of red blood cells, which happens in the spleen. The disease has both increased production of red blood cells and thus increases their degradation.

Its causes can be divided into hereditary and acquired. Among the inherited disorder include membranes of red blood cells, disrupted form hemoglobin (e.g., sickle cell anemia). Among the causes acquired immune belong, mixed and non-immune (infection, medication or enlargement of the spleen).

Hemolytic anemia manifested by symptoms such as pallor, jaundice and an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly).


treatment of anemia

Generally, we can say that the treatment of anemia is focused on accompanying causes of one of the types of anemia. It is not inconceivable that these species overlap. Care is therefore the treatment of the findings, using blood tests, hemoglobin, iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, red blood cells or other disease indications other investigative methods.

Then treatment can only focus on administration of the individual components missing in the body (see. In particular types of anemia) or the treatment of other disease causing anemia.


How can I help myself

Anaemia is itself a very complex disease, which is not to be trifled with. therefore it is good that the doctor knows if you have symptoms or you have already taken effect.

You should try to eat a varied diet consisting of green vegetables, red meat, fish, eggs and milk. If any of these foods for some reason you can not or do not eat, try to add individual ingredients and vitamins substitute.


complications of anemia

Generally complications of anemia arising from a given species. We must realize that blood is one of the most important organs in the body. Heart, brain or lungs could not function without blood, as they would not give one needed oxygen. Therefore, when even if only one blood component damage or apart from normal immediately arise other related diseases.

Other names: anemia, macrocytic anemia, microcytic anemia, normocytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Sideropenic anemia, anemia associated with chronic diseases, anemia of vitamin B 12 deficiency, anemia of folate deficiency, aplastic anemia, pernicious

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