Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis)

Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis)

Description anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening condition. It is an excessively strong immune response to otherwise harmless allergens.

The principle is that the first encounter with an allergen begin to produce antibodies – IgE. These harmlessly blood travels to .. the next encounter with the allergen it produced IgE will recognize attract mast cells and cause release of the contents of mast cells – histamine and heparin. It follows that anaphylactic reactions occur until the re-encounter with a given allergen (the first meeting patient may not even know sometimes.).

And what happens after the release of histamine and heparin from mast cells?

Generally, these substances vasodilator – expansion vessels – increase in blood flow therefore.There is swelling and at the same time that blood more quickly arrive also other components of the immune response, which give rise to inflammation .. This reaction could be thrown, it was if the response to the intrusion of any true parasite. However, mast cells are excessively active, and these substances spilling into meaningless stimuli and in excessive quantities.

In principle, therefore, anaphylactic reaction disproportionate immune response to poorly identified substance – designated as dangerous.

Download the airway (which can cause death in anaphylactic shock) is actually a defense to a hazardous substance could no longer breathe, diarrhea is a way to get the substance out of the body ..

Immunity means well, but is a bit confused. Are widespread views that is confused about how she almost does not indulging attack the real enemy – due to a significant increase in hygiene, reducing dust in the air is such enemies still less .. And thus forced out of boredom attack need to peanuts ..


Risk factors for anaphylaxis

Risks for developing an anaphylactic shock can be quite individual. But common to all anaphylactic reactions is that the organism with a substance which reacts disproportionately his immunity not meet for the first time. They must already be stored in the memory IgE – as a dangerous substance for the organism.

Cause anaphylactic shock, different foods (most commonly peanuts or other nuts, seafood, wheat, cow’s milk, fruits, offal), medicines (antibiotics ..), for someone can trigger anaphylaxis food additives (especially “Es” ..) someone excessively reacts on contact with latex (a problem in health care, since many medical material containing latex ..), a very common response is triggeredby insect stings (bee, wasp), physicians must reckon with the possibility of anaphylactic reactions after administration of contrast media to a patient cause may be physical exertion and many others, sometimes even unobserved factors (then referred to as idiopathic cause) ..


Prevention of anaphylactic shock

The main prevention of the disease is avoiding triggers of anaphylaxis.

In some cases, this anti-allergy vaccination – regular administration of a minimum amount of allergen to the immune system may be a substance used to.


Signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock

Anaphylaxis is manifested first skin symptoms – rash, itching, burning, swelling adds (choking hazard in case of swelling of the tongue or throat!), The patient has a feeling of fullness in the nose, a breathy, sometimes coughing.

Other symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, low blood pressure caused by local swelling, and vasodilatation, the patient may become unconscious ..

There is also known. anaphylactoid reactions. This is manifested in the same way as anaphylactic reactions. Varies the principle of formation – is not necessary, in the organism already present antibodies (IgE) produced in the previous exposure to the allergen. Therefore, anaphylactoid reactions may occur at the first contact with the substance (typical risk response to vaccination, it is therefore necessary after each vaccination to wait about 20 minutes in the waiting room ..)


Treatment of anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening condition that requires intervention aktutní. It has primarily focused on the control and maintenance of vital functions (maintain airway patency, in case of swelling of the tongue it is necessary to coniotomy – section between the first two laryngeal cartilages, better studded several thick needles into this place, which the patient may temporarily breathe) checking circulation in case of heart failure, cardiac massage initiation.

The acute intervention include the application of adrenaline (downloads dilated blood vessels, increases the pressure ..).

Patients with a history of anaphylactic shock have to be equipped with adrenaline and easy to apply(EpiPen – adrenaline pen).

When treating a patient with anaphylactic shock, it is necessary to remove the source of the allergen (Carefully remove the sting, tie off the limb, if possible ..)

The administered medicines include corticosteroids, antihistamines – suppresses allergic reactions, bronchodilators – extending downloaded bronchi.


How can I help myself

Perhaps all you can for yourself patient developing anaphylaxis to do is adrenaline (if it has one) and call for help.


Complications of anaphylactic shock

It is an acute condition .. The main complications include sudden death caused by a failure or circulation by preventing breathing.

Other names: anaphylaxis

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