Alopecia


Alopecia

Description alopecia

The term alopecia expresses bounded hair loss unlikeeffluvium, which is diffusion, which means unlimited.

Bounded hair loss is further divided into nejizvící: alopecia areata, alopecia Traumatic alopecia areolaris specifica, andscarring alopecia mucinosa: alopecia areata atrophicans.

The difference between them lies in the reversibility, reversibility.In the case of alopecia nejizvících the chance of complete cure and return hair growth significantly higher than alopecia with scar formation.

Types of hair throughout life changing. Lanugo, fine hair pokrývjící fetal head, before puberty varies so called. Velusové hair that are very fine and unpigmented. In the period of puberty creates strong pigmented hair called terminal.

Hair growth has three phases: anagen, catagen and telogen. The duration of phases and the number of hairs in them genetically conditional, which means that among individuals are individual differences.

Anagen phase is also called active – growth since hair grows in this period, every day it is about 35 mm. It takes three to six years. Under normal status at this stage is 80 to 90 percent of hair.

Catagen phase is transitory, short, lasts about 10 days and is located in the less than one percent of hair.

The final phase, telogen, is a resting phase. After its expiration (about 3 months) hair falls out.

Not only hair, but the hair follicle has in each of the phases of its characteristic appearance. Called.Trichogram allows assessment of the structure, shape and quality of hair. It is used in the diagnosis of diseases and hair to determine the cause of hair loss.

 

Nejizvící alopecia

Symptoms and description nejizvící alopecia Investigations nejizvící alopecia Treatment of alopecia nejizvící

The most common type of alopecia is alopecia areata. Its origin can be almost anywhere, most often it is preceded by a viral infection or inflammation, but also may be a manifestation of another, mainly autoimmune, disorders.

We define it as a border, a rapid but reversible, complete loss of hair on the ground.

When alopecia occurs at the site of repeated tension, pressure tight under heavy headdresses, pulling the hair through different hairstyles and ornaments, as a result of trauma after massages, cosmetic surgery but after intense swimming, we are talking about traumatic alopecia.

Another type of hair loss is alopecia areolaris specifica that accompanies the late period of the second stage of syphilis.

 

Symptoms and description nejizvící alopecia

Bounded type of hair loss, alopecia areata is characterized by round bald bearings. Initially they deployed separately, then blended. On their margins are so visible. Exclamation marks hair, that hair is shortened and thinned. Exclamation points hair suggests disease activity. Their hair follicles are telogen type. The skin is in the range of bearings soft, smooth, without scales and without signs of inflammation.

Hair can fall out on the whole head, and then it is alopecia totalis. Alopecia universalis refers to hair loss over the body.

A special form of alopecia is ofiáza. When her alopetická deposits forming on the edge of the scalp.The process begins at the neck continues at the temples, forehead and followed ultimately remains only a tuft of hair atop her head. Ofiáza often associated with atopy (e.g. atopic dermatitis) and other cutaneous, mainly autoimmune, disorders.

Furthermore, it appears fine dimpling of the skin or grooves on nails. Alopecia areolaris specifca which occurs in the second stage of syphilis is characterized by small deposits mostly in the neck.Later, these bearings are overgrown with normally pigmented hair apart from alopecia areata, which has the following hair pigmentation.

 

Investigations nejizvící alopecia

Alopecia areata is diagnosed mainly by clinical picture. Further examination trichograms does that prove pathologically changed structure of the hair at the edge bearings. The patient’s serum (from normal blood sampling) down the increased value of IgE. It is an antibody, which confirms the inflammatory process type atopy.

 

Treatment of alopecia nejizvící

Causal therapy that would resolve definitively the cause and consequences of the disease, does not yet exist. The beneficial effect was seen in the use of topical corticosteroids. Especially with fast zhorčujících conditions proved total application of corticosteroid treatment for weeks or months.After stopping treatment, but there is a recurrence of the disease.

Currently tested the effects of retinoids (derivatives of vitamin A), minoxidil, cignolin, difencpiron and UV-A – called PUVA therapy.

In two-thirds of patients, within a year to adjust. Patients with atopic eczema are worse, illness proceeds chronically, that is, after some time back. Prognosis ofiázy and extensive forms is not favorable, may result in permanent hair loss.

 

alopecia mucinosa

A special type of hair loss is alopecia nejizvící mucinosa or mucinosis follicularis. It is a relatively rare disease with accumulation of mucin (mucus) in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The origin is unknown, but it is probably the action of lymphocytes, which are found increasingly in 80% of patients.

The manifestations of this disease are nonspecific. Common locations expressions of the face, neck and scalp. Most of these irregularly bordered pink plaques. Hair follicles and sebaceous glands mouth protrude to the surface and can squeeze out of them phlegm.

In the treatment of alopecia mucinosy are sufficient corticosteroids administered topically.Potentially malignant lymphoma, which must first be ruled out in the differential diagnosis, but also even after the retreat of symptoms the patient monitor, as there is an increased possibility of its occurrence.

 

B. scarring alopecia

Symptoms and description of scarring alopecia Investigations scarring alopecia Treatment of scarring alopecia

To this group enclosed by hair loss include the whole range of diseases ending scar. The essence of scarring alopecia is the disappearance of the hair follicle. This may be caused by an inflammatory process in bacterial, fungal or viral infections, as well as mechanical or physical damage or tumor affections.

They lead to the same results as some dermatoses, especially those created on the basis of autoimmunity, such as. Discoid lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, lichen planopapilaris, favus, folliculitis decalvans or scarring pemphigoid. Some forms of scarring alopecia is out as a separate clinical entity for which the cause is not known.

 

Symptoms and description of scarring alopecia

Alopecia areata atrophicans, another name pseudopedale Brocq, a term covering a large group of irreversible hair loss probably different, but of unknown origin. The most commonly affected group is women aged between 30 and 50 years.

This type of alopecia occurs initially asymptomatic, almost without symptoms. Slowly produced fine bald spots in the crown and top of the scalp. The resulting deposits resemble footprints in the snow and are also so called.

Called. Footprints in the snow later merged and formed a hairless area of palm-sized. Skin is smooth, taut, whitish, posed a bit lower than its surroundings. Appear with no signs of inflammation.Resulting in lesions is each hair tufts of hair or tufts of hair up.

Always in determining this disease should be ruled alopecia of different origin. The histopathologic initially find plenty of lymphocytes and ultimately the hair follicle replaced by fibrous vertical stripes.

 

Treatment of scarring alopecia

Effective treatment is not known, but again demonstrate the beneficial effect of corticosteroids,administered both topically and internally used.

Other names: hair, bounded hair loss, alopecia areata, alopecia Traumatic alopecia areolaris specifica, ofiaza, mucinosa alopecia, alopecia Arata atrophicans, pseudopedale Brocq, hair loss, hair loss, baldness, alopecia

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